What is motivation?
Motivation is the internal drive to accomplish a particular goal.
In a work setting, motivation is what makes people want to work.
In the words of Michael Jucious, ‘motivation is the act of stimulating someone or oneself to get a desired course of action, to push the right button to get a desired reaction’.
Motives are the expressed needs and could be conscious or subconscious. They are always directed towards goals.
IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION
Motivation enhances the efficiency of the employees and of organization. When employees are motivated, they can perform with commitment and dedication.
2. Reduction in absenteeism and labour turnover:
Motivated employees may not remain absent or leave the organization. They develop a sense of belonging towards the organization and thus improve their overall performance.
3. Team spirit:
Motivation improves team spirit of employees, and this improves the work environment and the overall performance of the employee and the organization.
4. Reduction in wastages and breakages:
Motivated employees take great care in handling machines and other resources. This will reduce wastages and breakages, thus resulting in higher benefits to the organization.
5. Cordial relations:
Motivation enables cordial and healthy relationship in the organization. Motivation helps reduce labour grievances and disputes. It ensures sound relations between the management and the labour. It improves the overall efficiency of the organization.
6. Promotion of innovation:
Motivated employees use their initiative to find out innovative ways in the performance of their operations. Such employees are more creative and help the organization to gain the competitive advantage.
7. Optimum use of resources:
Motivation leads to greater employee involvement and lesser wastages. This leads to optimum utilization of resources.
8. Corporate image:
Motivated employees are more loyal to the organization. They work with a sense of commitment and dedication. This improves the overall performance of the employee, which enables better results for the company. This results in better relations with all the stakeholders.
CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTIVATION
1. Interaction between the individual and the situation:
Motivation is not a personal trait but an interaction between the individual and the situation.
2. Goal-directed behaviour:
Motivation leads to an action that is goal oriented. Motivation leads to accomplishment of organizational goals and satisfaction of personal needs.
3. Systems oriented:
Motivation is influenced by two forces:
a. Internal forces: These forces are internal to the individual, i.e., their needs, wants and nature.
b. External forces: These forces are external to the individual, which may be organizational related such as management philosophy, organizational structure, and superior-subordinate relationship, and also the forces found in the external environment such as culture, customs, religion and values.
4. Positive or negative:
Positive motivation or the carrot approach offers positive incentives such as appreciation, promotion, status and incentives. Negative motivation or stick approach emphasizes penalties, fines and punishments.
5. Dynamic and complex in nature:
Human behaviour is highly complex, and it becomes extremely difficult to understand people at work. Motivation is a dynamic and complex process.
CHALENGES IN MOTIVATION
§Changing Workforce –
One of the main reasons of motivation being a challenging job is due to the changing workforce. The employees become a part of their organization with various needs and expectations. Different employees have different beliefs, attitudes, values, backgrounds and thinking. But all the organizations are not aware of the diversity in their workforce and thus are not aware and clear about different ways of motivating their diverse workforce. §Employees motives –
Employees motives cannot be seen, they can only be presumed. Suppose, there are two employees in a team showing varying performance despite being of same age group, having same educational qualifications and same work experience. The reason being what motivates one employee may not seem motivating to other. § Job Role of Employees –
Motivation of employees becomes challenging especially when the organizations have considerably changed the job role of the employees, or have lessened the hierarchy levels of hierarchy, or have chucked out a significant number of employees in the name of down-sizing or right-sizing. Certain firms have chosen to hire and fire and paying for performance strategies nearly giving up motivational efforts. These strategies are unsuccessful in making an individual overreach himself. § Motivating Subordinates –
The vigorous nature of needs also pose challenge to a manager in motivating his subordinates. This is because an employee at a certain point of time has diverse needs and expectations. Also, these needs and expectations keep on changing and might also clash with each other. For instance-the employees who spend extra time at work for meeting their needs for accomplishment might discover that the extra time spent by them clash with their social needs and with the need for affiliation.